No. 1: Volatile-Rich Planet

Volatile-Rich Planet Loading the player MESSENGER measurements have revealed that Mercury is surprisingly abundant in volatile elements that evaporate at moderately high temperatures, ruling out many of the models for its formation and early history that had been proposed before the mission. Because potassium is much more volatile than thorium, the ratio of the abundances of these two elements is a sensitive measure of thermal processes that fractionate elements by volatility. For Mercury, as seen in the first graph, this ratio is similar to that for other terrestrial planets at greater distances from the Sun but significantly higher than that for the Moon, which lost potassium during the giant impact that led to its formation. Relatively high abundances of other volatile elements, including sulfur right side of the animation , sodium, and chlorine, provide further evidence that Mercury is volatile-rich. The high sulfur contents combined with low amounts of iron on the planet’s surface additionally indicate that Mercury formed from materials with less oxygen than those that formed the other terrestrial planets, providing an important constraint on theories for the formation of all of the planets in the inner Solar System. The internal magnetic field is times weaker than that of Earth and barely stands off the solar wind at the subsolar point to form the magnetosphere. The interaction of the planetary field with the solar wind generates currents in the magnetosphere, which induce external magnetic fields with magnitudes similar to or larger than the planetary field in much of the magnetosphere.

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General characteristics[ edit ] Like other mammals, monotremes are warm-blooded with a high metabolic rate though not as high as other mammals; see below ; have hair on their bodies; produce milk through mammary glands to feed their young; have a single bone in their lower jaw; and have three middle-ear bones. In common with reptiles and marsupials , monotremes lack the connective structure corpus callosum which in placental mammals is the primary communication route between the right and left brain hemispheres.

Fossil forms and modern platypus young have a “tribosphenic” form of molars with the occlusal surface formed by three cusps arranged in a triangle , which is one of the hallmarks of extant mammals.

When some Chinese miners objected and refused to pay the unfair tax, they were physically attacked and even murdered.

Between the years and , the United States engaged in a civil war, one of the most significant military confrontations in the young republic’s life. The conflict dramatically altered the course of American society, eradicating the institution of slavery from the land and accelerating a number of social, economic, and political trends originating in other regions of the country.

It also made lasting cultural impressions across imaginative and material American landscapes, including the gradual growth of a complex tourist industry built upon memory, patriotism, and consumerism, and the immediate expression of a deeply rooted, though politically sensitive, religious attachment to a distinctly southern way of life. The Civil War, however, was a major turning point in American history for another reason as well: While antebellum America demonstrated marked preoccupations with the reality of death in literature, material culture, religion, diaries and letters, and early medicine, the war led to the extreme escalation of certain tendencies emerging on the social scene, as well as to the production of entirely new views on death and the dead.

The incredible numbers of young men who died during the war, the problems associated with disposal of their bodies, and the rhetorical and symbolic efforts to make sense of the lives lost had profound consequences for American sensibilities and institutional structures. The Presence of Death During the war years, death was a pervasive element of social life in both the northern and southern sections of the country. Up until the war, Americans were quite familiar with the presence of death, intimate with its consequences in their own homes and local communities.

Some estimates suggest that in the North, where more accurate records of the period are available, the crude death rate in the antebellum period was around 15 per 1, in rural areas, and between 20 and 40 per 1, in more populated cities. Most people lived into their late thirties if they survived the exceedingly dangerous early years of life. Chances of dying in childhood were also quite high, according to many studies.

Thor: 15 Things You Didn’t Know About Loki

College libraries, public libraries, private libraries — whatever and wherever they are, we love them all. We may not be as reliant on brick-and-mortar libraries anymore, but even in the digital era, we had no trouble finding dozens of architecturally interesting libraries and libraries with interesting collections, as well as many that are actually fascinating in both respects. Library of Congress — Washington D. Though it consists of only three buildings, it is the largest library in the world for shelf space and number of volumes.

While open to the public for on-site research and as a tourist attraction, as the research institution of Congress, only members of Congress, Supreme Court justices, and other specified government officials can check out books. The library houses more than 11 million items, including many of historical importance:

Fossil forms and modern platypus young have a “tribosphenic” form of molars with the occlusal surface formed by three cusps arranged in a triangle , which is one of the hallmarks of extant mammals.

I just had an eye exam and my doctor was freaking out a little about how poorly I see in my current glasses. She was definitely quite surprised that I didn’t get new glasses sooner and kept saying that the image with my new glasses on might be really sharp and take a while to adjust to. She also said that she didn’t give me an extra step in power because the change was already quite big. Thanks in advance for the update if you choose to provide one.

And that word “adapting” is important, because it doesn’t happen overnight; it’s as if her visual system needs to be coaxed from ignoring the useless fog in the distance to deciphering what can now be seen. So that’s one reason why Maddie isn’t given the full assumed prescription right away – the results of such a sudden change from fog to clear-ish are not always predictable, so it is wise to be cautious. It’s not as if she needs to drive a car, and correcting most of her myopia is a lot better than nothing.

The ECP is also trying to avoid overcorrecting Maddie’s vision, thus making her hyperopic ie the opposite situation to hers. So, caution first, avoid overcorrection, give her most of her prescription and see what happens. As for her level of myopia, well some decades ago I thought anything over 10 dioptres just didn’t exist – I was initially surprised when I read about cases over that level.

Since then I’ve spent many years reading about vision and by now there’s not much that surprises me.

How To Write A Hit Comedy Script: Advice from Playwright Jessica Bylander

By Hailey Branson-Potts Sep 15, 4: People held up their cellphones to record it. There were hugs and tears. Young children napped in their seats, while their elders drank coffee — and champagne. But as Friday drew near, his mood changed.

I will try to explain that in my next post.

History[ edit ] The practices of courtship in Western societies have changed dramatically in recent history. As late as the s, it was considered unorthodox for a young couple to meet without familial supervision in a tightly controlled structure. Compared with the possibilities offered by modern communications technology and the relative freedom of young adults, today’s dating scene is vastly different. Before the s, the primary reason for courting someone was to begin the path to marriage.

It functioned as a way for each party’s family to gauge the social status of the other. This was done in order to ensure a financially and socially compatible marriage. This form of courtship consisted of highly rigid rituals, including parlor visits and limited excursions. These meetings were all strictly surveyed, typically by the woman’s family, in order to protect the reputations of all involved and limit such possibilities as pregnancy. This manner of courtship system was mostly used by the upper and middle classes from the eighteenth century through the Victorian period.

The lower classes typically did not follow this system, focusing more on public meetings.

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Advice from Playwright Jessica Bylander This is a guest post by Jessica Bylander , a writer, editor, and playwright. It was VERY loosely inspired by real-life events my aunt sleep walks on Ambien, drives to the store, and buys weird food. This was my second time writing and producing a show for Fringe, and it was a whirlwind of activity and emotions.

Producing my own show was a crash course in the art of hunkering down, getting stuff done, and rolling with the punches. Here are a few tips for writing a hit comedy.

For my play, I set up a Facebook page that I updated frequently, attended Fringe parties and walked the streets handing out promotional postcards, cross-promoted with other comedies in my venue, and sent out an email blast through MailChimp to friends and family when tickets went on sale.

Prior to his appearance in the MCU however, very few knew anything of this horned trickster, other than comic fans or Norse mythology nerds. But did you know he also likes to cross-dress, is a pansexual and almost looked a lot like Jim Carrey? His cosmic meddling would famously a few years later, similar to his role in the MCU, cause the formation of the Avengers.

Published by Timely Comics — the future Marvel — this comic series followed the romantic adventures of the Greek Siren Venus which naturally brought her into contact with some of mythologies greatest characters. For his part, Loki is depicted as the ruler of Hades, having nothing to do with his Norsian background or Asgardian lineage. When comics made way for the era of superheroes, Loki was reimagined by Stan Lee and Jack Kirby as the trickster we all know and sneer at today.

Apparently he inherited all that from his biological father — or should we say mother. His biological father is, as his last name suggests, Laufey.

Civil War, U.S.

Asians have been in the U. The history of Asians in the U. Eventually, Filipino sailors were the first to settle in the U. Later around , to make up for the shortage of slaves from Africa, the British and Spanish brought over slaves or “coolies” from China, India, and the Philippines to islands in the Caribbean, Peru, Ecuador, and other countries in South America. However, the first large-scale immigration of Asians into the U.

If you stoped wearing your glasses, in a few days it would revert to the old algorithm, but it might complain some to tell you that it really prefers the new one.

Cassini scientists celebrate the mission’s end with a few hundred of their closest friends

This was my second time writing and producing a show for Fringe, and it was a whirlwind of activity and emotions.

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This issue is compounded by the great distance between Mercury and Earth:

Johns Hopkins University Freshman Orientation 2011