History of Technology Heroes and Villains – A little light reading Here you will find a brief history of technology. Initially inspired by the development of batteries, it covers technology in general and includes some interesting little known, or long forgotten, facts as well as a few myths about the development of technology, the science behind it, the context in which it occurred and the deeds of the many personalities, eccentrics and charlatans involved. You may find the Search Engine , the Technology Timeline or the Hall of Fame quicker if you are looking for something or somebody in particular. Scroll down and see what treasures you can discover. Background We think of a battery today as a source of portable power, but it is no exaggeration to say that the battery is one of the most important inventions in the history of mankind. Volta’s pile was at first a technical curiosity but this new electrochemical phenomenon very quickly opened the door to new branches of both physics and chemistry and a myriad of discoveries, inventions and applications. The electronics, computers and communications industries, power engineering and much of the chemical industry of today were founded on discoveries made possible by the battery.
Leibnitz reworked Descartes’s cosmogony. Protogea was published much later in An essay toward a Natural History of the Earth. Woodward came down fairly strongly for the view that the flood was an act of God that could not be accounted for by normal physical processes. He also postulated hydrological sorting to account for the ordering of fossils.
One trend is towards exclusive matchmaking events for the ‘rich and powerful’; for example, an annual June event in Wuhan with expensive entry-ticket prices for men 99, RMB lets financially secure men choose so-called bikini brides based on their beauty and education ,  and the financial exclusivity of the event was criticized by the official news outlet China Daily.
One path of wine history could follow the developments and science of grape growing and wine production; another might separately trace the spread of wine commerce through civilization, but there would be many crossovers and detours between them. However the time line is followed, clearly wine and history have greatly influenced one another. Fossil vines, million-years-old, are the earliest scientific evidence of grapes.
The earliest written account of viniculture is in the Old Testament of the Bible which tells us that Noah planted a vineyard and made wine. As cultivated fermentable crops, honey and grain are older than grapes, although neither mead nor beer has had anywhere near the social impact of wine over recorded time. This Princess, having lost favor with the King, attempted to poison herself by eating some table grapes that had “spoiled” in a jar.
She became intoxicated and giddy and fell asleep. When she awoke, she found the stresses that had made her life intolerable had dispersed. Returning to the source of her relief, her subsequent conduct changed so remarkably that she regained the King’s favor. He shared his daughter’s discovery with his court and decreed an increase in the production of “spoiled” grapes The University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archeology and Anthropology has a web site covering the Origins and Ancient History of Wine with several very interesting and user-friendly articles about the discovery and science of wine’s social origin and development.
Battery and Energy Technologies
Dating techniques Photo by: Bastos Dating techniques are procedures used by scientists to determine the age of an object or a series of events. The two main types of dating methods are relative and absolute.
Galen carried out controlled experiments to support his theories and was the first to conclude that mental actively occurred in the brain rather than the heart, as Aristotle had suggested.
History In the 19th century, many Mariachi were roaming laborers moving from one hacienda to another, often more than the average laborer. With the revolution, however, many of the haciendas were forced to dismiss the mariachi, who then wandered from town to town singing songs corridos of revolutionary heroes and enemies, and carrying news from one place to another.
The Mariachi took to playing in public venues for tips. One of the most popular of these venues was San Pedro Tlaquepaque in the state of Jalisco, a fashionable place for the residents of Guadalajara to spend the summer. From the beginning, mariachi music was dance music. The traditional dance technique associated with both the son jalisciense and son jarocho is the zapateado.
At the time that Darwin’s On the Origin of Species was published, the earth was “scientifically” determined to be million years old. By , it was found to be 1. In , science firmly established that the earth was 3. Finally in , it was discovered that the earth is “really” 4.
From the beginning, mariachi music was dance music.
The most detailed descriptions come from eyewitness accounts and court records from wars past. During the trial of Japanese war criminal Chinsaku Yuki, one of his victims, Ramon Navarro, described being subjected to waterboarding. Yuki placed some cloth on my face. And then with water from the faucet, they poured on me until I became unconscious. He repeated that four or five times. Ramon Navarro, Waterboarding Victim The surprisingly contentious confirmation process of Michael Mukasey, President Bush’s pick for attorney general, has come down to one issue: Mukasey has called waterboarding personally “repugnant,” but said he did not know enough about how it has been used to define it as torture.
The Washington debate over the simulated-drowning technique may be new, but the practice is not. It predates the Inquisition and has been used, off and on, around the world ever since. Its use was first documented in the 14th century, according to Ed Peters, a historian at the University of Pennsylvania. It was known variously as “water torture,” the “water cure” or tormenta de toca — a phrase that refers to the thin piece of cloth placed over the victim’s mouth.
History of Needlework
To determine the absolute age of wood and organic artifacts. Method A scientific date is either absolute specific to one point in time or relative younger or older than something else. Dendrochronology, or tree-ring dating, provides absolute dates in two different ways: Direct Dating of Wood Cross-dating determines the age of undated wood by directly matching ring patterns with trees of known age.
Greatly simplified, the process samples living and dead trees in a given area.
Why should this be?
Controversy[ edit ] Anthropologist Helen Fisher in What happens in the dating world can reflect larger currents within popular culture. For example, when the book The Rules appeared, it touched off media controversy about how men and women should relate to each other, with different positions taken by New York Times columnist Maureen Dowd  and British writer Kira Cochrane of The Guardian.
Sara McCorquodale suggests that women meeting strangers on dates meet initially in busy public places, share details of upcoming dates with friends or family so they know where they’ll be and who they’ll be with, avoid revealing one’s surname or address, and conducting searches on them on the Internet prior to the date. Don’t leave drinks unattended; have an exit plan if things go badly; and ask a friend to call you on your cell phone an hour into the date to ask how it’s going.
If you explain beautifully, a woman does not look to see whether you are handsome or not — but listens more, so you can win her heart. That is why I advise our boys to read stories and watch movies more and to learn more beautiful phrases to tell girls. The Internet is shaping the way new generations date. Facebook , Skype , Whatsapp , and other applications have made remote connections possible.
Changing Views of the History of the Earth
Herbchronology Dating methods in archaeology[ edit ] Same as geologists or paleontologists , archaeologists are also brought to determine the age of ancient materials, but in their case the areas of their studies are restricted to the history of both ancient and recent humans. Thus, to be considered as archaeological, the remains, objects or artifacts to be dated must be related to human activity. It is commonly assumed that if the remains or elements to be dated are older than the human species, the disciplines which study them are sciences such geology or paleontology, among some others.
In some cases heavy or precious threads, such as gold or silver is couched, that is, laid across the ground fabric and tied to it with another separate thread.
See Article History Alternative Title: Construction of poured concrete , reinforced or unreinforced, is often also considered masonry. The art of masonry originated when early man sought to supplement his valuable but rare natural caves with artificial caves made from piles of stone. Circular stone huts, partially dug into the ground, dating from prehistoric times have been found in the Aran Islands , Ireland.
By the 4th millennium bce, Egypt had developed an elaborate stonemasonry technique, culminating in the most extravagant of all ancient structures, the pyramids. The choice of masonry materials has always been influenced by the prevailing geological formations and conditions in a given area. Egyptian temples, for example, were constructed of limestone , sandstone , alabaster, granite , basalt, and porphyry quarried from the hills along the Nile River.
Another ancient centre of civilization, the area of western Asia between the Tigris and Euphrates, lacked stone outcroppings but was rich in clay deposits. As a result, the masonry structures of the Assyrian and Persian empires were constructed of sun-dried bricks faced with kiln-burned, sometimes glazed, units. Inca stoneworkInca stonework lining a street in Cuzco, Peru.
A significant development in masonry construction in ancient times was the invention of concrete by the Romans. Although well-cut blocks of stone masonry could be erected without benefit of mortar , the Romans recognized the value of cement , which they made from pozzolanic tuff, a volcanic ash.
Today, mascara is known as a beauty product, but the history of mascara proves mascara originated to ward off evil spirits and ill-wishers. The History of Mascara: Ancient Beauty Ancient Egyptians play a large part of the rich history of mascara. Dating as far as B. Egyptians lined their eyes with kohl and used the mascara to deepen their lashes.
One further, more recent, suggestion by Paul T.
Contact Us To trace the history of cross stitch, we must look back to the very beginnings of embroidery, since it is only relatively recently that cross stitch has been used as the sole stitch in a piece. Ancient wall paintings and sculptures show that embroidery was worked on clothing from the earliest times. An ancient Peruvian running-stitch sampler has been dated to — AD The word Embroidery comes from the Anglo-Saxon word for “edge”, but the technique itself was being used long before that.
The term was first applied to decoratively stitched borders on medieval church vestments. But over time it came to cover all stitched decoration on any textile fabric. The first textiles were probably made from intertwined stems and grasses, until a way of twisting short fibres and animal hairs into continuous strands evolved about 10, BC. Fragments of cloth dating from between 5, BC and AD have been excavated from tombs and monuments in South America, Egypt and China, and these show crude examples of darning, half cross stitch and satin stitch.
Many of the fragments are made of linen; the regular warp and weft of this fabric, one of the oldest of all woven materials, provided the basis for the development of counted thread stitches. The earliest known Embroidery examples are from B. C They are hand work over the woven threads on clothing. The earliest example of a complete cross stitch is a design worked in upright crosses on linen, and the piece was discovered in a Coptic tomb in Upper Egypt, where it was preserved by the dry desert climate dating from about AD in Upper Egypt.
Very few pieces of decorated fabric have survived from ancient civilisations, but this does not mean that decorative stitching was rarely used. Natural fibres are perishable and do not survive as well as most metal and ceramic objects excavated from archaeological sites.
And there are lots of them. Sounds like a lot when you hear it, but the truth is, there could be as many as 6 billion of them if everyone on this planet would be commited enough to develop their own unique style. One of the main reasons why there is such a variety of techniques is undoubtedly due to its very long history. But there are many other reasons too, such as: To put things in perspective and make it easier to understand, let’s draw some parallels and compare the chi with material things, something we are all more familiar with, such as iron or any other metal.
We all have chi within our bodies but unless we learn how to activate it, it remains unexplored and unused to its full potential.
The aqueduct supplied Nimes with water and is nearly 30 miles 50 kilometres long.
Introduction Considered to be decorative art , jewellery is one of the oldest categories of precious metalwork. There are many different types of jewellery, including: Such decorative adornments were first made in prehistoric times – as confirmed by cave paintings showing figures wearing necklaces and bracelets – and have since become a regular feature of most cultures throughout the ages. An important type of Egyptian art as well as the more nomadic Celtic culture , jewellery was a feature of Byzantine art in Medieval Kiev, African art throughout the Dark Continent, Oceanic art across the Pacific and both Aztec and Inca culture in the Americas.
Indeed, jewellery – like body painting and face painting – has been a fundamental element of tribal art for millennia. Jewels have also been used to adorn weapons, as well as ceremonial and religious objects. During the era of modern art, movements like Art Nouveau and the later Art Deco , inspired new ranges of decorative jewels, while a number of famous artists dabbled in jewellery design including: Jewellery Materials One of the most expensive types of art , the basic components of jewellery include metal sheet, metal cast in a mold, and wire.
The most widely used metal is gold, because of its malleability, ductility, colour and value. Gold sheets may be embossed into shape, or pressed or pierced into decorative forms, while gold wire is often employed to join jewels together or to make chains. Less expensive precious metals used in jewellery-making include silver and platinum, as well as alloys like bronze, and non-precious metals like copper and steel.
As well as metals, other materials used in the art of jewellery manufacture include precious and semi-precious gemstones.
Waterboarding: A Tortured History
One report in China Daily suggests that dating for Chinese university women is “difficult” and “takes work” and steals time away from academic advancement, and places women in a precarious position of having to balance personal success against traditional Chinese relationships.