The term “Clovis” comes from Clovis, New Mexico, where it names both an archaeological site and a fluted projectile point style. Many projectile points are named as it is much easier to remember what an “Elko-Eared” point looks like rather than something like “Point Type 2J. The term “prehistoric” has been misused and often has been stereotyped into an image of the brutal “cave man. All humans share a “prehistory. Now that the glyphs have been translated and it has become historic archaeology. Sampling creates a bias in our view of human technology. The negative connotation of primitive technology is bogus. Human groups have very sophisticated technologies, but their orientation varies through time. If you learn nothing else from this web site, it should be the concept of “appropriate technology”. There are no “primitives”, only people like you or me, doing things according to their contexts of other people, places and times.
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READ MORE History of archaeology No doubt there have always been people who were interested in the material remains of the past, but archaeology as a discipline has its earliest origins in 15th- and 16th-century Europe , when the Renaissance Humanists looked back upon the glories of Greece and Rome. Popes, cardinals, and noblemen in Italy in the 16th century began to collect antiquities and to sponsor excavations to find more works of ancient art.
These collectors were imitated by others in northern Europe who were similarly interested in antique culture. All this activity, however, was still not archaeology in the strict sense. It was more like what would be called art collecting today.
As the information under this question notes, ACL’s in the U.
Primitive cruciform signs The sign of the cross, represented in its simplest form by a crossing of two lines at right angles, greatly antedates, in both the East and the West, the introduction of Christianity. It goes back to a very remote period of human civilization. In fact, some have sought to attach to the widespread use of this sign, a real ethnographic importance.
At successive periods this was modified, becoming curved at the extremities, or adding to them more complex lines or ornamental points, which latter also meet at the central intersection. The swastika is a sacred sign in India , and is very ancient and widespread throughout the East. It has a solemn meaning among both Brahmins and Buddhists , though the elder Burnouf “Le lotus de la bonne loi, traduit du sanscrit”, p.
It seems to have represented the apparatus used at one time by the fathers of the human race in kindling fire; and for this reason it was the symbol of living flame, of sacred fire, whose mother is Maia, the personification of productive power Burnouf, La science des religions. It is also, according to Milani, a symbol of the sun Bertrand, La religion des Gaulois, p.
Others have seen in it the mystic representation of lightning or of the god of the tempest, and even the emblem of the Aryan pantheon and the primitive Aryan civilization. In this way, especially through the adverbial particle, it would mean “sign of benediction”, or “of good omen” svasti , also “of health” or “life”. The swastika sign was very widespread throughout the Orient, the seat of the oldest civilizations.
The celebrated excavations of Schliemann at Hissarlik on the site of ancient Troy brought to light numerous examples of the swastika: The swastika sign is seen on Hittite monuments, e.
Archæology of the Cross and Crucifix
Poverty Point culture is an archaeological picture of how certain Lower Mississippi Valley peoples lived between around and B. Archaeologists have identified aspects of this way of life over a large area of the Lower Mississippi Valley from a northerly point near the present junction of the Mississippi and Arkansas rivers above the present-day town of Greenville, Mississippi to the Gulf coast.
This area includes parts of Louisiana, Mississippi, and Arkansas. In addition, tools and ornaments resembling Poverty Point types have been found as far up the river as Tennessee and Missouri and along the Gulf coast as far east as Tampa, Florida, and the Atlantic coast of Georgia. Archaeologists identify Poverty Point culture by its characteristic artifacts and the nonlocal rocks used to make them.
Imported rocks and minerals include various cherts and flints, soapstone, hematite, magnetite, slate, galena, copper, and many others.
Some archaeologists work with historians to study American colonial life, for example.
Upon encountering a new site, the archaeologist immediately requires information about its age in order to set it in context with other sites. In research into our heritage the conservationist or architect may be able to date the general period of a building he is working with from either the situation, materials of construction, type of timber joints or other stylistic features. Almost certainly the century or portion of a century when it was built may be assigned with some certainty.
However, as more and more work is done and increasing numbers of structures with complex constructional phases are encountered, the general features may not be sufficient to give the accuracy in dating that is currently required. If research into other sources of information also fails to throw light on the building’s history, resort may be made to the various scientific methods of dating. This article outlines three of the most important methods currently used for dating buildings or, in a complex situation, the order of construction within the building.
Each method has a distinct role in the investigation of historic buildings.
A seafarers tale – an archaeological elucidation of a shipwreck By Sten Sjostrand Dreary weather and intermittent rain has led to a dramatic drop in temperature over the last few days and then, just as the rain finally stopped, a cold wind began to blow from the north. It whipped up high waves and enormous swells that broke repeatedly against the side of the ship giving the deck, and everyone on it, a good showering.
It was unbearably cold, wet and miserable. Captain Heng Tai dexterously managed to avoid getting any salt water in his face as he crouched and turned with every hit. He was an experienced captain who had sailed this route many times before, but never so late in the season. The best time for the voyage was December when the northeast monsoon winds guaranteed a fair and safe passage all the way down the South China Sea.
Thousands of Aztec artifacts came to light during the digging of the Mexico City subway in the s.
In traditional ancient folklore, nettles of various types were often regarded as having magical powers. They were seen as being able to protect both humans and animals from sorcery and witchcraft. So far no evidence of any extensive patterns or coloured dyes have been found on any of the linen and nettle yarn textile fragments — although the edge of one piece of fabric perhaps part of a shawl or cape seems to have been decorated with fringes, rows of knots, and strips featuring different styles of weave.
Certainly, dying the linen would have presented substantial technical difficulties — but bleaching it would have been much less challenging. It is therefore very likely that the naturally light brown linen was bleached to achieve a creamy white or possibly even dazzlingly pure white appearance. Basic bleaching of the fabric might well have been achieved with the use of a mixture of urine and milk or by simply laying out the fabrics on wet grass on a succession of sunny days. The village appears to have been very prosperous, yet tragically short-lived.
Discovery of vast treasure trove of fine textiles shows importance of fashion to Bronze Age Britons
The International History Project Date: Archaeology studies past human behavior through the examination of material remains of previous human societies. These remains include the fossils preserved bones of humans, food remains, the ruins of buildings, and human artifacts—items such as tools, pottery, and jewelry. From their studies, archaeologists attempt to reconstruct past ways of life.
Archaeology is an important field of anthropology, which is the broad study of human culture and biology. Archaeologists concentrate their studies on past societies and changes in those societies over extremely long periods of time.
But the boundaries of such areas have remained uncertain despite long efforts at precision, and their use as a basis for archeological generalizations has generally been unsatisfactory.
See the General Bottle Morphology page for more details on finish related terminology. DOUBLE RING – Also known as a double collar, double bead, double lip, Davis-type, stacked ring, bead lip with a ring, round band lower flared, broad round collar with lower bevel, inverted double ring, citrate of magnesia finish, double roll collar, stacked ring, and likely other names as this was a very commonly utilized finish over a long era. This two-part finish is composed of two connected “rings” – a thicker taller and slightly wider side to side variably rounded ring at the top of the finish the “lip” with a thinner and narrower variably rounded to flat ring below i.
An example of this is the cobalt blue bottle to the lower right. The illustration to the above right is from the Illinois Glass Company catalog and shows that company’s double ring finish which has a sharp outer edge to the upper part and a rounded lower part. This was also called a citrate of magnesia finish as this variation is very often found on such bottles Alther ; Bellaire ca. Other variations can have either or both rings somewhat or totally flattened on outside.
For the purposes of this website these minor variations are all considered to be double ring finishes. The stacked ring finish finish 23 which consists of two equally proportioned rings is also considered as a variation of the double ring finish. Between about and the s, and particularly between and , this style of finish was one of the most popular and functional finishes used. It can be found on both mouth-blown and machine-made bottles, though is uncommon on the latter.
Non-Technical – Jun 25, – by Col. The story takes place near the Old Testament city of Shechem. Shechem is mentioned 60 times in the Old Testament.
The lengthy Archaic period begins with a post Pleistocene drying trend that produced an essentially modern climate regime around B.
Bedouin tribesmen living in and among the ancient ruins say the damage was caused when local men would open fire with rifles, seeking the loot thought to be inside the urn actually made of solid stone. There are dozens of tombs and other carved or constructed structures and sites within Petra. History The Nabataeans, before they were conquered and absorbed into the Roman Empire, controlled a vast tract of the Middle East from modern-day Israel and Jordan into the northern Arabian peninsula.
The remains of their innovative networks of water capture, storage, transport, and irrigation systems are found to this day throughout this area. Scholars know the Nabataeans were in Petra since at least B. Al-Muheisen, who has been excavating in Petra since and specializes in the Nabataean period, says no one has yet found any archaeological evidence dating back to the fourth century B. The earliest findings thus far date back only to the second and first centuries B.
But more clues remain beneath the surface. Researchers at the American Center of Oriental Research in Amman, the capital, are now analyzing the scrolls and hope they will shed light on life in Petra during this period. Once Rome formally took possession of Petra in A. The decay of the city continued, aided by earthquakes and the rise in importance of sea trade routes, and Petra reached its nadir near the close of the Byzantine Empire’s rule, around A.
V. Gordon Childe
It reveals many more axe carvings and much new information on how the stones were shaped. The analysis found 71 new axehead carvings, increasing the number known at Stonehenge to This is around a years after the big sarsen stone circle was erected.
As many excavated Paleoindian sites exhibit multiple components, there is the chance that much of the occupations are mixed with later cultural material.
Cultural History This overview of the prehistory and history of southeastern New Mexico, specifically the lower Pecos River to the Texas border, is designed to address two areas. First, this overview will briefly outline broad temporal periods and mention some of the previous fieldwork that was used in their definition in southeastern New Mexico. A discussion section follows and addresses theoretical and methodological issues that affect our knowledge of that temporal period.
The methodological discussion includes information that can be derived from survey and excavation. The beginning of human occupation of the eastern slopes of the Sacramento Mountains is unknown. Evidence for limited use of the area from at least 20, years ago has been documented from Pendejo Cave located on the eastern edge of the Tularosa Basin MacNeish and Libby The earliest record of human occupation in southern New Mexico is indicated by the occurrence of generalized lithic toolkits associated with the remains of Pleistocene mammals and plants with radiocarbon dates ranging back to forty thousand years ago at Pendejo Cave near Oro Grande MacNeish and Libby
Shechem: Its Archaeological and Contextual Significance
Tree-Ring Dating Dendrochronology Dr. Ron Towner from the Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research at the University of Arizona explains the principles behind dendrochronology and why this dating method is valuable to archaeologists. Ron demonstrates how to accurately count tree-rings, and discusses the importance of patterns and master chronologies.
It has a ring attached to it for securing it around the neck, and it seems to have had grapevine ornamentation at the extremities.
Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites. Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare , “We speak from facts not theory”. Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries.
Flavio Biondo , an Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology. Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camden , conducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing, describing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered. First excavations[ edit ] An early photograph of Stonehenge taken July One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England.
The bottles used for illustration are a small but diverse assortment designed to give users guidance on how to work a bottle through the dating information to answer the Homepage’s primary question 1 – What is the age of the bottle? The example bottles are tracked though the Bottle Dating page questions in that pages directed sequence. Hyperlinks in green to the specific dating questions on the Bottle Dating page are included so that a user can reference the necessary portions of that page.
Each of the green question hyperlinks result in a pop-up page showing the particular question on the Dating Page; once read it should be deleted to avoid clutter.
Note the crude finish appearance including the “slop-over” of glass onto the neck from the lower portion of the finish – a key diagnostic feature of an applied finish.
Bible Archaeology Bible Archaeology: Abraham’s ancestral home of Ur , a powerful city-state of southern Mesopotamia, is mentioned four times in the Old Testament. Located in modern Iraq, Ur has been excavated on and off since the s and has revealed a wealth of information about the pagan culture of Abraham’s time. Also found in that same area of Turkey are villages that still have the names of Abraham’s grandfather and great grandfather, Nahor and Serug Genesis Cities of Ancient Empires Bible Archaeology includes the capital cities of the major ancient empires.
For instance, the Hittite civilization is mentioned throughout the Old Testament as ruling the area of present-day Turkey, Syria and Lebanon, yet nothing was known of these people outside of the Bible. About years ago, ancient Boghazkoy was discovered east of Ankara, Turkey, which revealed itself as the expansive capital city of the Hittite Empire.
Since then, archaeologists have uncovered a wealth of information about the history, language and culture of a people considered “imaginary” to many scholars prior to that time. Babylon , the ancient capital of the Babylonian Empire, covers nearly 3, acres about 55 miles south of current-day Baghdad in Iraq.